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Διατροφική ανάπτυξη, θηλασμός και στερεές τροφές

Ομιλία του Σ Παπαβέντση στο Παγκρήτιο Παιδιατρικό Συνέδριο τον Σεπτέμβριο του 2011.

Πλήρεις βιβλιογραφικές αναφορές
ΣΙΔΗΡΟΣ
1. Chaparro CM et al. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;367(9527):1997-2004.
2. Gompakis N. et al. Τhe effect of dietary habits and socioeconomic status on the prevalence of iron deficiency in children of Northern Greece. ActaHaem 2007, 117: 200-4.
3. Ekonomou M. et al. Τhe role of iron in brain development and functioning.Paediatr N Gr 2008, 20:186 – 190.
4. AAP Section on Breastfeeding, Schanler RJ; Executive Commitee, Feldman-Winter L, Landers S, Noble L, Szucs KA, Viehmann L. Concerns with early universal iron supplementation of breastfeeding infants. Pediatrics. 2011 Apr;127(4):e1097

ΕΞΙ ΜΗΝΕΣ ΑΠΟΚΛΕΙΣΤΙΚΟΥ ΘΗΛΑΣΜΟΥ
1. Dewey KG et al. Effects of exclusive breastfeeding for 4 versus 6 months on maternal nutritional status and infant motor development: results of two randomized trials in Honduras. J Nutr 2001;131:262-7.
2. Platt M. Demand weaning: infants’ answer to professionals’ dilemmas. Arch Dis Child 2009;94:79-80.
3. Kramer MS et al. The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: a systematic review.Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.
4. Kramer MS et al. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003517.
5. Naylor AJ et al. Developmental readiness of normal full term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods. Linkages/Wellstart International, 2001.
6. Shim JE et al. Associations of Infant Feeding Practices and Picky Eating Behaviors of Preschool Children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Sep;111(9):1363-1368.

ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΙΚΕΣ ΕΠΙΔΡΑΣΕΙΣ ΘΗΛΑΣΜΟΥ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΣΧΟΛΙΚΗ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ
1. Lande B et al. Breast-feeding at 12 months of age and dietary habits among breast-fed and non-breast-fed infants. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(4):495-503.
2. Catherine A. et al. Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance . PediatricsVol. 120 No. 6 2007, pp. 1247-1254.
3. Burnier D et al. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and later intake of vegetables in preschool children.Eur J ClinNutr. 2010 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]
4. Mandel D et al. Fat and energy contents of expressed human breast milk in prolonged lactation. Pediatrics.2005;116(3):e432-5.
5. Mennella JA et al. (2001) Prenatal and postnatal flavor learning by human infants. Pediatrics. 2001;107(6):E88.
6. Hausner H et al. Breastfeeding facilitates acceptance of a novel dietary flavour compound. ClinNutr. 2010;29(1):141-8.
7. Στέλιος Παπαβέντσης. Επιστροφή στο μητρικό θηλασμό. Εκδόσεις Πατάκη, Αθήνα 2011.
8. De Kroon ML et al. The Terneuzen Birth Cohort. Longer exclusive breastfeeding duration is associated with leaner body mass and a healthier diet in young adulthood. BMC Pediatr. 2011 May 10;11(1):33.
9. Horta et al. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis. World Health Organization, 2007

ΠΡΟΒΛΗΜΑΤΑ ΠΡΟΣΧΟΛΙΚΗΣ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ
1. Ελένη Γάκη, Δημήτρης Παπαμιχαήλ, Γιασεμή Σαραφίδου, Τάκης Παναγιωτόπουλος, Ιωάννα Αντωνιάδου-Κουμάτου. Εθνική Μελέτη Συχνότητας Και Προσδιοριστικών Παραγόντων Μητρικού Θηλασμού. Ινστιτούτο Υγείας του Παιδιού, Αθήνα, 2009.
2. American Academy of Pediatrics, American Heart Association, Samuel S G et al. Dietary Recommendations for Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Practitioners. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 544 – 559.
3. Nielsen SJ et al. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA. 2003;289 :450 –453.
4. Linardakis M et al. Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity. BMC Public Health. 2008 Aug 6;8:279.
5. Παπαβέντσης Στέλιος. Προικισμένα μωρά εμπνευσμένοι γονείς: για μια άλλη προσχολική διατροφή. Εκδόσεις Πατάκη, Αθήνα, 2010.
6. Elliott CD et al. Sweet and salty: nutritional content and analysis of baby and toddler foods. J Public Health (Oxf). 2011 Mar;33(1):63-70. Epub 2010 Jun 1.
7. Wright CM et al. How do toddler eating problems relate to their eating behavior, food preferences, and growth? Pediatrics. 2007 Oct;120(4):e1069-75.
8. Dovey TM et al. Food neophobia and ‘picky/fussy’ eating in children: a review. Appetite. 2008 Mar-May;50(2-3):181-93. Epub 2007 Sep 29.
9. Cooke L. The importance of exposure for healthy eating in childhood: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2007 Aug;20(4):294-301.
10. Scaglioni S et al. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour. Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb;99 Suppl 1:S22-5.
11. Gabrielle Palmer. Complementary Feeding: Nutrition, Culture and Politics. Pinter & Martin Ltd Publishing 2011.
12. Βαζαίου Α. Διατροφή παιδιών προσχολικής ηλικίας μετά το πρώτο έτος της ζωής και σχέση αυτής με παχυσαρκία. 38ο Πανελλήνιο Συνέδριο Ενδοκρινολογίας, 2011.
13. Mossop B. Can we be trained to like healthy foods? Scientific American J, July 13 2011.
14. Bouhlal S et al. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake. Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb;105(4):645-53.
15. Butte NF et al. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Dec;110(12 Suppl):S27-37.

ΓΟΝΕΙΚΟΣ ΕΛΕΓΧΟΣ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ ΕΝΑΝΤΙΑ ΣΕ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΚΑΤΑ ΑΠΑΙΤΗΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΙΔΙΟΥ
1. Wardle J et al. Parental control over feeding and children’s fruit and vegetable intake: how are they related? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Feb;105(2):227-32.
2. Rapley, G. Baby-led weaning, a developmental approach to the introduction of complementary foods. Quay Books, London, 2006.
3. Benton D. Role of parents in the determination of the food preferences of children and the development of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jul;28(7):858-69.
4. Rapley G. Baby-led weaning: transitioning to solid foods at the baby’s own pace. Community Pract. 2011 Jun;84(6):20-3.
5. Brown A et al. Maternal Control of Child Feeding During the Weaning Period: Differences Between Mothers Following a Baby-led or Standard Weaning Approach. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

EKΘΕΣΗ ΣΕ ΣΧΗΜΑΤΙΣΜΕΝΗ ΤΡΟΦΗ
1. Northstone K et al. The effect of age of introduction to lumpy solids on foods eaten and reported feeding difficulties at 6 and 15months. J Hum Nutr Diet 2001;14:43-54
2. Complementary Feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutririon. J of Ped Gastroenter. & Nutr 46:99-110;2008
3. Coulthard H et al. Delayed introduction of lumpy foods to children during the complementary feeding period affects child’s food acceptance and feeding at 7 years of age. Matern Child Nutr. 2009 Jan;5(1):75-85.

ΛΕΠΤΙΝΗ
1. Palou A. et al. Leptin intake during lactation prevents obesity and affects food intake and food preferences in later life. Appetite. 2009 Feb;52(1):249-52.
2. Miralles O et al. A physiological role of breast milk leptin in body weight control in developing infants. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug;14(8):1371-7.
3. Savino F et al. Update on breast milk hormones: leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;27(1):42-7.

ΜΠΙΜΠΕΡΟ, ΔΙΑΠΛΑΣΗ ΠΡΟΣΩΠΟΥ, ΠΡΟΒΛΗΜΑΤΑ ΔΟΝΤΙΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΤΟΜΑΤΟΣ
1. Li R. et al. Association of breastfeeding intensity and bottle-emptying behaviors at early infancy with infants’ risk for excess weight at late infancy. Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122Suppl 2:S77-84.
2. de Holanda AL et al. Relationship between breast- and bottle-feeding and non-nutritive sucking habits. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2009;7(4):331-7.
3. Barbosa C et al. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers. BMC Pediatr. 2009;9:66.
4. Viggiano D et al. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(12):1121-3.
5. Sánchez-Molins M et al. Comparative study of the craniofacial growth depending on the type of lactation received. Eur J PaediatrDent. 2010;11(2):87-92.
6. Montgomery-Downs HE et al. Infant-Feeding Methods and Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Pediatrics 2007; 120: 1030 – 1035.
7. Palmer B. Snoring and sleep apnoea: how it can be prevented in childhood. Breastfeed Rev. 2006;14(2):11- 14.
8. Moimaz SA et al. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26(3):102-6.
9. Robke FJ et al. Effects of nursing bottle misuse on oral health. Prevalence of caries, tooth malalignments and malocclusions in North-German preschool children. J Orofac Orthop. 2008;69(1):5-19.
10. Raymond JL et al. Influence of feeding method on maxillofacial development. Orthod Fr. 2006;77(1):101-3.
11. Carrascoza KC et al. Consequences of bottle-feeding to the oral facial development of initially breastfed children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006;82(5):395-7.
12. Kobayashi HM et al. Relationship between breastfeeding duration and prevalence of posterior crossbite in the deciduous dentition. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop. 2010;137(1):54-8.
13. Mohebbi SZ et al. Feeding habits as determinants of early childhood caries in a population where prolonged breastfeeding is the norm. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2008;36(4):363-9.
14. Romero CC et al. . Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. J Appl Oral Sci. 2011 Apr;19(2):161-8.
15. Gooze RA et al. Prolonged Bottle Use and Obesity at 5.5 Years of Age in US Children. J Pediatr. 2011 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]

ΠΟΙΚΙΛΙΑ ΤΡΟΦΙΜΩΝ
1. Kirsi M et al. Fish Consumption During the First Year of Life and Development of Allergic Diseases During Childhood. Pediatrics, Nov 2007; 120: S109.
2. Mennella JA et al. Variety is the spice of life: strategies for promoting fruit and vegetable acceptance during infancy. Physiol Behav. 2008 Apr 22;94(1):29-38.

ΠΑΧΥΣΑΡΚΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΤΑΒΟΛΙΚΟ ΣΥΝΔΡΟΜΟ
1. Ludwig DS et al. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet. 2001 Feb 17;357(9255):505-8
2. Farajian P et al. Very high childhood obesity prevalence and low adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet in Greek children: The GRECO study. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print]
3. Lazarou C. et al. Lifestyle factors are determinants of children’s blood pressure levels: the CYKIDS study. J Hum Hypertens.2008 Dec 18.
4. Robinson SM et al. Variations in infant feeding practice are associated with body composition in childhood: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2009;94(8):2799-805.
5. Weyermann M et al. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight in childhood: a prospective birth cohort study from Germany. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30(8):1281-7.
6. Metzger MW et al. Breastfeeding as obesity prevention in the United States: A sibling difference model. Am J HumBiol. 2009 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print]
7. Harder T et al. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 162: 397-403.
8. Lamb MM et al. Early-Life Predictors of Higher Body Mass Index in Healthy Children. Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;56(1):16-22
9. Αkobeng AK et al. Assessing the population impact of low rates of breast feeding on asthma, coeliac disease and obesity: the use of a new statistical method. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007;92:483-485
10. Gooze RA et al. Prolonged Bottle Use and Obesity at 5.5 Years of Age in US Children. J Pediatr. 2011 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]
11. Manios Y et al. Prevalence of obesity and body mass index correlates in a representative sample of Cretan school children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010 Jun 7. [Epub ahead of print]
12. Susanna Y et al. Timing of Solid Food Introduction and the Risk of Obesity in Preschool-Aged Children, Pediatrics, Feb 2011, DOI:10.1542/peds.2010-0740
13. Kafatos A et al. Obesity in childhood: the Greek experience. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2005;94:27-35.

ΦΥΣΙΚΕΣ ΤΡΟΦΕΣ ΕΝΑΝΤΙ ΕΠΕΞΕΡΓΑΣΜΕΝΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΣΥΜΠΛΗΡΩΜΑΤΩΝ
1. Briefel R. et al. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers? J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan;106(1 Suppl 1):S52-65.
2. Wooltorton E. et al. Too much of a good thing? Toxic effects of vitamin and mineral supplements.CMAJ.2003 Jul 8;169(1):47-8.
3. Dragsted LO et al. The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidativedefense in healthy nonsmokers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):1060-72.
4. McCunn D. et al. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.
5. Bateman B. et al. The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Jun;89(6):506-11.
6. Dona A. et al. Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.2009 Feb;49(2):164-75.
7. Pusztai A. et al. Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM food? Nutr Health. 2002;16(2):73-84.
8. Varzakas TH et al. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority. Food ChemToxicol. 2007 Apr;45(4):530-42.

ΜΕΣΟΓΕΙΑΚΗ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ
1. Sofi F. et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Sep 11;337:a1344. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1344.
2. de Lorgeril M. et al. The Mediterranean-style diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Public Health Nutr.2006 Feb;9(1A):118-23.
3. Farajian P et al. Very high childhood obesity prevalence and low adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet in Greek children: The GRECO study. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Apr 13. [Epub ahead of print]
4. Kontogianni MD et al. Adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet are low in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1951-6.
5. Kafatos A et al. Mediterranean diet of Crete: foods and nutrient content. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000 Dec;100(12):1487-93.

AΣΒΕΣΤΙΟ
1. American Academy of Pediatrics. Calcium Requirements of Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Pediatrics Vol. 104 No. 5 November 1999, pp. 1152-1157, revised 2006.

ΓΕΝΙΚΕΣ ΣΥΣΤΑΣΕΙΣ
1. Kavey RE et al. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. Circulation. 2003;107 :1562 –1566.
2. World Health Organization. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. WHO, Geneva, 2003.
3. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organisation (WHO). Complementary feeding: Family foods for breastfed children. 2000.
4. World Health Organization. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. WHO, Geneva; 2004.
5. World Health Organization. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the nonbreastfed child 6 – 24 months of age. WHO, Geneva, 2005.
6. World Health Organization. Infant and young child feeding : model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. WHO, Geneva, 2009.
7. World Health Organization. Infant And Young Child Feeding Counselling: an Integrated Course. WHO, Geneva, 2007.
8. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics 2005;115;496-506
9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2011.

ΠΡΟΤΥΠΑ ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗΣ

1. Coombes Ret al. UK adopts growth charts based on data from breastfed babies. BMJ. 2009;338:b1892.
2. WHO. Child growth standards: child catalogue. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005.
3. De Onis M et al. WHO growth standards for infants and young children. Arch Pediatr.2009;16(1):47-53.

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